Table of Contents
Mercurial ships with an extension named
convert, which can import project history
from most popular revision control systems. At the time this
book was written, it could import history from the following
(To see why Mercurial itself is supported as a source, see the section called “Tidying up the tree”.)
[extensions] convert =
hg convert http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn/trunk
convert extension operates
incrementally. In other words, after you have run hg
convert once, running it again will import any new
revisions committed after the first run began. Incremental
conversion will only work if you run hg
convert in the same Mercurial repository that you
originally used, because the
extension saves some private metadata in a
non-revision-controlled file named
.hg/shamap inside the target
When you want to start making changes using Mercurial, it's best to clone the tree in which you are doing your conversions, and leave the original tree for future incremental conversions. This is the safest way to let you pull and merge future commits from the source revision control system into your newly active Mercurial project.
The hg convert command given above
converts only the history of the
branch of the Subversion repository. If we instead use the
Mercurial will automatically detect the
branches layout that Subversion projects
usually use, and it will import each as a separate Mercurial
By default, each Subversion branch imported into Mercurial
is given a branch name. After the conversion completes, you
can get a list of the active branch names in the Mercurial
repository using hg branches -a. If you
would prefer to import the Subversion branches without names,
convert.hg.usebranchnames=false option to
Once you have converted your tree, if you want to follow the usual Mercurial practice of working in a tree that contains a single branch, you can clone that single branch using hg clone -r mybranchname.
Some revision control tools save only short usernames with commits, and these can be difficult to interpret. The norm with Mercurial is to save a committer's name and email address, which is much more useful for talking to them after the fact.
If you are converting a tree from a revision control
system that uses short names, you can map those names to
longer equivalents by passing a
option to hg convert. This option accepts
a file name that should contain entries of the following
arist = Aristotle <firstname.lastname@example.org> soc = Socrates <email@example.com>
convert encounters a commit
with the username
arist in the source
repository, it will use the name
<firstname.lastname@example.org> in the converted
Mercurial revision. If no match is found for a name, it is
convert extension supports the idea
of a “file map” that can reorganize the files and
directories in a project as it imports the project's history.
This is useful not only when importing history from other
revision control systems, but also to prune or refactor a
# This is a comment. # Empty lines are ignored. include path/to/file exclude path/to/file rename from/some/path to/some/other/place
include directive causes a file, or
all files under a directory, to be included in the destination
repository. This also excludes all other files and dirs not
explicitely included. The
directive causes files or directories to be omitted, and
others not explicitly mentioned to be included.
To move a file or directory from one location to another,
rename directive. If you need to
move a file or directory from a subdirectory into the root of
the repository, use
. as the second
argument to the
You will often need several attempts before you hit the
perfect combination of user map, file map, and other
conversion parameters. Converting a Subversion repository
over an access protocol like
http can proceed thousands of times more
slowly than Mercurial is capable of actually operating, due to
network delays. This can make tuning that perfect conversion
recipe very painful.
The svnsync command can greatly speed up the conversion of a Subversion repository. It is a read-only mirroring program for Subversion repositories. The idea is that you create a local mirror of your Subversion tree, then convert the mirror into a Mercurial repository.
svnadmin create memcached-mirror
echo '#!/bin/sh' > memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change
chmod +x memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change
svnsync --init file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror \ http://code.sixapart.com/svn/memcached
svnsync sync file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror
hg convert memcached-mirror
There are two advantages to doing a two-stage import with svnsync. The first is that it uses more efficient Subversion network syncing code than hg convert, so it transfers less data over the network. The second is that the import from a local Subversion tree is so fast that you can tweak your conversion setup repeatedly without having to sit through a painfully slow network-based conversion process each time.
Subversion is currently the most popular open source revision control system. Although there are many differences between Mercurial and Subversion, making the transition from Subversion to Mercurial is not particularly difficult. The two have similar command sets and generally uniform interfaces.
The fundamental difference between Subversion and Mercurial is of course that Subversion is centralized, while Mercurial is distributed. Since Mercurial stores all of a project's history on your local drive, it only needs to perform a network access when you want to explicitly communicate with another repository. In contrast, Subversion stores very little information locally, and the client must thus contact its server for many common operations.
Subversion more or less gets away without a well-defined notion of a branch: which portion of a server's namespace qualifies as a branch is a matter of convention, with the software providing no enforcement. Mercurial treats a repository as the unit of branch management.
Since Subversion doesn't know what parts of its namespace are really branches, it treats most commands as requests to operate at and below whatever directory you are currently visiting. For instance, if you run svn log, you'll get the history of whatever part of the tree you're looking at, not the tree as a whole.
Mercurial's commands behave differently, by defaulting to operating over an entire repository. Run hg log and it will tell you the history of the entire tree, no matter what part of the working directory you're visiting at the time. If you want the history of just a particular file or directory, simply supply it by name, e.g. hg log src.
With Subversion, it is normal (though slightly frowned upon) for multiple people to collaborate in a single branch. If Alice and Bob are working together, and Alice commits some changes to their shared branch, Bob must update his client's view of the branch before he can commit. Since at this time he has no permanent record of the changes he has made, he can corrupt or lose his modifications during and after his update.
Mercurial encourages a commit-then-merge model instead. Bob commits his changes locally before pulling changes from, or pushing them to, the server that he shares with Alice. If Alice pushed her changes before Bob tries to push his, he will not be able to push his changes until he pulls hers, merges with them, and commits the result of the merge. If he makes a mistake during the merge, he still has the option of reverting to the commit that recorded his changes.
It is worth emphasizing that these are the common ways of working with these tools. Subversion supports a safer work-in-your-own-branch model, but it is cumbersome enough in practice to not be widely used. Mercurial can support the less safe mode of allowing changes to be pulled in and merged on top of uncommitted edits, but this is considered highly unusual.
Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. The Subversion model means that changes are published, and hence reviewable and usable, immediately. On the other hand, this means that a user must have commit access to a repository in order to use the software in a normal way, and commit access is not lightly given out by most open source projects.
The Mercurial approach allows anyone who can clone a repository to commit changes without the need for someone else's permission, and they can then publish their changes and continue to participate however they see fit. The distinction between committing and pushing does open up the possibility of someone committing changes to their laptop and walking away for a few days having forgotten to push them, which in rare cases might leave collaborators temporarily stuck.
Table A.1. Subversion commands and Mercurial equivalents
|svn add||hg add|
|svn blame||hg annotate|
|svn cat||hg cat|
|svn checkout||hg clone|
|svn cleanup||n/a||No cleanup needed|
|svn commit||hg commit; hg push||hg push publishes after commit|
|svn copy||hg clone||To create a new branch|
|svn copy||hg copy||To copy files or directories|
|svn delete (svn remove)||hg remove|
|svn diff||hg diff|
|svn export||hg archive|
|svn help||hg help|
|svn import||hg addremove; hg commit|
|svn info||hg parents||Shows what revision is checked out|
|svn info||hg showconfig paths.parent||Shows what URL is checked out|
|svn list||hg manifest|
|svn log||hg log|
|svn merge||hg merge|
|svn mkdir||n/a||Mercurial does not track directories|
|svn move (svn rename)||hg rename|
|svn resolved||hg resolve -m|
|svn revert||hg revert|
|svn status||hg status|
|svn update||hg pull -u|
Under some revision control systems, printing a diff for a single committed revision can be painful. For instance, with Subversion, to see what changed in revision 104654, you must type svn diff -r104653:104654. Mercurial eliminates the need to type the revision ID twice in this common case. For a plain diff, hg export 104654. For a log message followed by a diff, hg log -r104654 -p.
When you run hg status without any arguments, it prints the status of the entire tree, with paths relative to the root of the repository. This makes it tricky to copy a file name from the output of hg status into the command line. If you supply a file or directory name to hg status, it will print paths relative to your current location instead. So to get tree-wide status from hg status, with paths that are relative to your current directory and not the root of the repository, feed the output of hg root into hg status. You can easily do this as follows on a Unix-like system:
hg status `hg root`